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Terminology
Terminology

 

There is no generally accepted definition for the term gem or gemstone, but they all have something special, something beautiful about them. Most gemstones are minerals (e.g., diamond), mineral aggregates (such as lapis lazuli) or rocks (such as onyxmarble). Some are organic formations (e.g., amber), and other gem materials are of synthetic origin (e.g., YAG).

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‌Blue Sapphire
‌Blue Sapphire

 

The name Sapphire (Greek-Blue) used to be applied to various stones. In antiquity and as late as the Middle Ages, the name sapphire was understood to mean what is today described as lapis lazuli. Around 1800 it was recognized that sapphire and ruby are gem varieties of corundum. At first only the blue variety was called sapphire, and corundums of other colors (with the exception of red) were given special, misleading names, such as "Oriental Peridot" for the green variety or "Oriental Topaz" for the yellow type.

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Ruby
Ruby

 

Two color varities of corundum are used for making jewelry, the red Ruby and the blue sapphire which comprises all other colors.

Common corundums, those not of gemston quality, serves as cutting and polishing material. The well-known polishing material emery is mainly fine-grain corundum, to which magnetite, hematite and quartz are added. The name corundum has its origine in India and probably referred to ruby.

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Diamond (The 4C's)
Diamond (The 4C's)

 

This group includes all those stones that have been traditionally represented in the trade. The name diamond refers to its hardness (Greek- Adamas, the unconquerable). There is nothing comparable to it in hardness. its cutting resistance is 140 times greater than that of ruby and sapphire, the gemstone next in hardness after diamond. However the hardness of a diamond is different in the individual crystal directions. This allows one to cut diamond with diamond and diamond powder. Because of the perfect cleavage, care must be taken not to accidently bang againts an edge of a diamond and also when setting it. Its very strong luster sometimes enables the experienced eye to differentiate between a diamond and its imitations.

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Emerald
Emerald

Emerald is one of the most desirable gemstones, they are rich green variety of beryl.

Beryl provides some of nature's most beautiful gemstones. Although it is colorless in its pure form, it is perhaps best known for its colored varieties, which include aquamarine and emerald - indeed, its name comes from the Greek beryllos, meaning " green stone " . The colorless from of beryl is known as goshenite, and its clarity is such that it was used to make lenses for some of the earliest eyeglasses during the late Middle Ages.

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Gemstone
Gemstone

 

A gem is generally defined as any mineral that is highly prized for its beauty, durability, and rarity, is used for personal adornment, and has been enhanced in some manner by altering its shape usually by cutting and polishing. A wider definition includes a few rocks, such as obsidian, and a few organic substances, such as amber (a fossilized resin). By far the majority of gems, however, are cut from the crystals of minerals. precious metals are not considered to be gems, nor are items carved from minerals but not used for personal  adornment, such as figurines, bowls, or vases.

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